Graffiti | Wikipedia audio article

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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia
Graffiti

00:01:27 1 Etymology
00:02:17 2 History
00:03:01 2.1 Modern-style graffiti
00:05:38 2.2 Literacy or illiteracy often revealed in graffiti
00:08:19 3 Contemporary graffiti
00:10:22 3.1 Advent of aerosol paint
00:11:35 3.2 Spread of hip hop culture
00:13:31 3.3 Stencil graffiti emerges
00:14:09 3.4 Graffiti as a memorial
00:14:38 3.5 Commercialization and entrance into mainstream pop culture
00:15:53 3.6 Gamer culture
00:18:21 3.7 Advocates
00:20:41 3.8 Global developments
00:20:50 3.8.1 South America
00:22:46 3.8.2 Middle East
00:23:45 3.8.3 Southeast Asia
00:24:20 4 Characteristics of common graffiti
00:24:30 4.1 Methods and production
00:25:47 4.2 Modern experimentation
00:26:22 4.3 Tagging
00:29:25 5 Uses
00:31:42 5.1 Personal expression
00:34:24 5.2 Radical and political
00:41:12 5.3 As advertising
00:42:42 5.4 Offensive graffiti
00:44:37 6 Decorative and high art
00:47:32 7 Environmental effects
00:48:06 8 Government responses
00:48:15 8.1 Asia
00:51:37 8.2 Europe
00:54:53 8.3 Australia
00:57:25 8.4 New Zealand
00:58:16 8.5 United States
00:58:25 8.5.1 Tracker databases
00:59:39 8.5.2 Gang injunctions
01:00:41 8.5.3 Hotlines and reward programs
01:02:02 8.5.4 Search warrants
01:02:55 9 Documentaries
01:06:13 10 Dramatic films
01:06:54 11 Novel

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

SUMMARY
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Graffiti (both singular and plural; the singular graffito is very rare in English except in archeology) is writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface, usually without permission and within public view. Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and it has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, and the Roman Empire.In modern times, paint (particularly spray paint) and marker pens have become the most commonly used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owner’s permission is considered defacement and vandalism, which is a punishable crime.
Graffiti may also express underlying social and political messages and a whole genre of artistic expression is based upon spray paint graffiti styles. Within hip hop culture, graffiti have evolved alongside hip hop music, b-boying, and other elements. Unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to mark territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities.Controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials, law enforcement, and writers who wish to display and appreciate work in public locations. There are many different types and styles of graffiti; it is a rapidly developing art form whose value is highly contested and reviled by many authorities while also subject to protection, sometimes within the same jurisdiction.

Open -> Merge Dragons Hack 2020